martes, mayo 16, 2006

INTRODUCCIÒN AL DERECHO

La naturaleza eminente social del hombre, impone a este la ineludible necesidad de vivir asociado a sus semejantes, formando grupos organizados, empezando con la familia y la Naciòn, hasta llegar a las diversas formas del Estado Moderno. En las diversas formas de organización de los hombres: Familia Nación, Estado, son cuestiones fundamentales de su existencia, la seguridad y el orden y esta finalidad se alcanza encauzando, en determinada forma, la conducta de los individuos.
Los actos sobresalientes de esta conducta son los que se refieren a la satisfacción de sus necesidades.
La necesidad de conservar el alimento indispensable para vivir, produce el sentimiento colectivo de la propiedad y la necesidad de asegurar la propiedad y la vida humana, crea la voluntad colectiva de la defenza y la agresión que cuando se concentra en un organo, hacen nacer la autoridad. Esta autoridad pues, al garantizar la vida individual y colectiva, hace nacer el Derecho.
La actividad de los individuos como seres dotados de razón, propende a guiarse por normas que la lleven de modo a mejorar y realizar un objetivo determinado. De ahí que existan normas que tienen un criterio muy amplio, es decir que se refieren a la conducta del individuo como ser humano. Estas normas son las denominadas éticas ( del griego etos, costumbre o conducta) , las normas éticas se refieren a la realizacion de todos los fines o propositos del hombre en su vida social; son imperativas, porque obligan al sujeto a seguirse por razón de su mejor convivencia, su tranquilidad de conciencia o espiritual, por sus creencias o por el Bien como fin supremo que la razón concibe y que el individuo debe alcanzar al venir y vivir en este mundo por un ideal de perfeccion, tal y como lo predica el precepto cristiano: "procurad ser perfectos al igual que lo es vuestro padre que esta en cielo". porque no se concibe que el individuo destruya o pueda destruir a su antojo el orden tanto social en general, como espiritual que su religion o su moral le imponen como mejor forma de armonia en el vivir. Y cuando acontece que el individuo destruye este orden, obrando contrariamente a la norma ética, se hace acreedor a merecer la crítica de sus semejantes, expresada en un reproche tácito por parte de ellos o hasta en un remordimiento de la propia conciencia, por no haber obrado de acuerdo con una norma o regla espiritual de conducta. Esto quiere decir que entra en juego el interés general que quiere que todo individuo obre conforme a una regla o norma de moral, para no perturbar el orden social que lleva mejor a vivir en armonia con sus semejante. Así la sociedad exige que sus miembros respeten esas normas en interes general.
Dentro de las normas eticas podemos distinguir dos categorias :
normas morales y normas juridicas. una regla o norma moral es un criterio que el sujeto debe seguirya sea para lograr su perfeccion de su alma si lo guia la religion.
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